“Anthropology” was tune written by Charlie Parker. It is a bebop head based on the chord changes of George Gershwin’s tune “I Got Rhythm”. There are MANY other tunes that use the same chord progression. We call this set of chord changes “rhythm changes.” It is the 2nd most common set of changes in jazz music, after the 12 bar blues.
It is always good to know a handful of heads based on rhythm changes so you have more material to work with on jam sessions and gigs. Anthropology is one of the more common heads based on rhythm changes (tunes based on “I Got Rhythm”).
This tune is most often played in the key of Bb major, the most common key for rhythm changes.